2005/10/15

¿Impreso o imprimido? ¿Freído o frito?

Una serie de verbos se caracteriza por tener dos participios, uno regular y otro irregular. No obstante, para la formación de los tiempos compuestos se utilizan generalmente los regulares (con las excepciones de frito, impreso y provisto), quedando los irregulares en función adjetiva. Por ejemplo, el profesor no ha corregido todavía los exámenes, pero suponemos que están correctos.

En cuanto a los verbos imprimir y freír poseen dos participios, uno regular y otro irregular, y ambos son igualmente correctos en español:
Infinitivo: imprimir
Participios: impreso e imprimido
Infinitivo: freír
Participio: freído y frito

Pero sucede que algunas de estas formas nos parecen en ocasiones menos comunes, por lo que tendemos a considerarlas erróneas. Sin embargo, se pueden usar indistintamente para la formación de los tiempos compuestos de los verbos:

He impreso el documento.
He imprimido el documento.
He frito los plátanos
He freído los plátanos

En el caso de que se use como adjetivo, se utiliza exclusivamente la forma frito; y así, diremos: papas fritas y no: papas freídas
Diremos: pescado frito y no pescado freído
El verbo fritar como sinónimo de freír es correcto, aunque sólo se utiliza en Colombia y en la provincia española de Salamanca. Sin embargo, la Academia recomienda utilizar, preferiblemente, freír.

En conclusión: las formas irregulares no pueden usarse en los tiempos compuestos; por lo tanto no se dice he impreso diez copias sino he imprimido diez copias dado que es el participio regular imprimido el que debe usarse en la conjugación. Los participios irregulares sólo se emplean como adjetivos o sustantivos.

30 Comentarios:

Anonymous Juan Perez said...

no solo en Colombia y Salamanca se usa fritar, en varias otras partes de Sud America se lo hace tambien (Bolivia, Argentina, ...)

3:05 p.m.  
Anonymous Gustavo F said...

De García Márquez:

«Habían impreso en su lugar billetes de a cien»

9:37 p.m.  
Blogger Fibonacci said...

"... no se dice he impreso diez copias sino he imprimido diez copias..."
Hace unas líneas usted afirmó lo contrario: "... se pueden usar indistintamente para la formación de los tiempos compuestos de los verbos".

¿Al fin qué? ¿He impreso, imprimido, o ambas, las tales diez copias?

1:12 a.m.  
Blogger Cesar said...

Este comentario ha sido eliminado por el autor.

6:36 a.m.  
Blogger Cesar said...

Tanto "he impreso" como "he imprimido" son correctas. El autor se contradice, pero tiene razón en lo que dijo inicialmente.

6:38 a.m.  
Blogger Fernando said...

Es bueno mantener claros los conceptos de "adjetivo", ""sustantivo" y los términos correspondientes a los tiempos en la conjugación. Así no habrá confusión.

1:25 a.m.  
Anonymous Anónimo said...

COMO VERBO ES DECIR, ESTAMOS SIGNIFICANDO QUE HEMOS REALIZADO LA ACCIÓN DE FREIR. FRITO ES UNA PALABRA QUE SE EMPLEA COMO ADJETIVO NO COMO VERBO , POR EJEMPLO PESCADO FRITO....EN RESUMEN PODEMOS DECIR HE FREIDO EL PESCADO POR ESO ES QUE AHORA ESTA FRITO.NO CONFUNDAMOS EL VERBO CON EL ADJETIVO

11:56 a.m.  
Anonymous MARCO ANTONIO said...

SE DICE HE FREIDO PORQUE ESTAMOS EMPLEANDO LA PALABRA COMO VERBO, ES DECIR, ESTAMOS SIGNIFICANDO QUE HEMOS REALIZADO LA ACCIÓN DE FREIR. FRITO ES UNA PALABRA QUE SE EMPLEA COMO ADJETIVO NO COMO VERBO , POR EJEMPLO PESCADO FRITO....EN RESUMEN PODEMOS DECIR HE FREIDO EL PESCADO POR ESO ES QUE AHORA ESTA FRITO.
NO CONFUNDAMOS EL VERBO CON EL ADJETIVO

11:58 a.m.  
Anonymous MARCO ANTONIO said...

SE DICE HE FREIDO PORQUE ESTAMOS EMPLEANDO LA PALABRA COMO VERBO, ES DECIR, ESTAMOS SIGNIFICANDO QUE HEMOS REALIZADO LA ACCIÓN DE FREIR. FRITO ES UNA PALABRA QUE SE EMPLEA COMO ADJETIVO NO COMO VERBO , POR EJEMPLO PESCADO FRITO....EN RESUMEN PODEMOS DECIR HE FREIDO EL PESCADO POR ESO ES QUE AHORA ESTA FRITO.
NO CONFUNDAMOS EL VERBO CON EL ADJETIVO

11:58 a.m.  
Anonymous MARCO ANTONIO said...

POR OTRO LADO , SE PUEDE AGREGAR QUE DEPENDE DEL LUGAR DONDE SE HABLE, PERO EN EL PERU NO SE EMPLEA EL VERBO FRITAR SINO FREIR...TENIENDO EN CUENTA QUE SE HA CONSIDERADO QUE EL CASTELLANO MEJOR HABLADO A NIVEL MUNDIAL ES EL LIMEÑO,POR SUPUESTO HABLADO CORRECTAMENTE Y APLICANDO LAS CATEGORIAS Y REGLAS GRAMATICALES

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